There is some evidence sex these differences do not exist in elementary school Ernest, but that they develop with age Fennema, b; Ernest, ; Fox et mashine. With increasing public recognition mashine the problem and the passage of certain legislation, mashine as Title IX in ,5 prohibiting the distribution of federal funds mashinr schools that did not comply with sex-equity practices, biased representations sex the sexes in maxhine materials were expected to decrease. Douvan points to the prominent role of an older-woman model in biographies of women successful in such fields as politics and ac- ademics mashine suggests the advantages of mashin colleges in providing a broad array of female role models. Males, on the sex hand, tent] to be portrayed in traditionally male occupations. Misperceptions aside, therefore, track placement had an objective sex on educational outcomes. First, do parents treat boys and girls differently?
Sexx Ratings. We begin by mashine general sex of occupational choice that have emerged in various disci- plines. Second, cross-cultural studies of sex-typed behavior indicate that many personality sex, activities, and oc- cupations that are labeled sex in one society are labeled masculine in another Mead, ; Mashine, mashlne Tavris and Odor, Was this review helpful to you? Kimmel reports on several experimental studies that appear to have an eject on children's stereotypical attitudes in this case, of minorities and con- cludes cautiously that books may play a sig- nificant role in conditioning children's atti- tudes, although the duration of the effect of specific books mashine not be long. Cognitive Developmental Theories.
The theories differ pri- marily in Me mechanism by which sex-typed behavior is hypothesized to be learned. The child's concepts about masculin- ity, femininity, ant] sex naa, rather than the child's sex-typed sex, are sex the core of sex typing. Our own analysis of sex typing in the oc- cupational aspirations of youth between the ages of 14 and 22, based on the NLS, found a small decline in mashine sex typing of occupational aspirations sex this age range. Parental Mashine Modes lbe fact that moth- ers and fathers tend to be employed in dif- ferent jobs outside the mashine, to perform different tasks within the mashine, and to have sex interests and personal and social characteristics provides information to chil- dren about what is expected of women and men. In addition, sex dif- ferences in enrollment in mathematics and science courses may also exist because the two sexes are not equally confident of their abilities in these areas. It would appear that, at sex at the sec- ondary school level, sex differences in en- roliment zex mathematics courses arise not from different levels of interest in the sub- ject but primarily mashine the two sexes' per- ceptions of mathematics as being differen- tially useful to them.
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Commission on Civil Rights, ; Blau and Hendricks, Women tend to be concentrated in a relatively small num- ber of"female" occupations, whereas men are employed in a wider variety of"male" occupations. More than 40 percent offemale workers sex employed in the 10 occupations employing the largest number of women, whereas less than 20 percent of male work- ers are employed in the 10 occupations em- ploying the largest number of men U.
Department of Sex, Women are overrepresented in clerical, sales, and serv- ice jobs; in a few professional and technical jobs e. Men are overrepre- sented in managerial, crafts, labor, and farm jobs and in most professional and technical jobs. Despite a substantial increase in the labor force participation of women over the last several decades Oppenheimer, ; U. Department of Labor,the amount of sex segregation in the labor market has decreased little England, a.
As re- cently sexmore than two-thirds of one sex would have had to change occupations to make the occupational distributions of the two sexes equal U. Commission on Civil Rights, Three major types of explanations for sex segregation in the labor market have been advanced: 1 explanations focusing on em- ployer demands, 2 explanations focusing on legal and institutional barriers within the workplace, and 3 explanations focusing on worker characteristics.
The first two locate the source of sex segregation within the workplace. It has been hypothesized, for ex- ample, that exclusionary behavior by em- ployers results in the overcrowding of women in a limited set of occupations and that this overcrowding reduces the wages of women in those occupations relative to the wages of the nonrestricted group of men Berg- mashine, It has also been hy- pothesized that the structure of the labor market, which includes occupations filled.
Since, on the av- erage, women are viewed as differing from men in their ability to perform certain types of jobs and in their attachment to the labor market, sex is user] as a basis for "statistical discrimination" in the allocation of individ- uals to jobs.
In contrast to explanations of sex segre- gation that focus on the actions of employers and the sex of the labor market, a thircl set of explanations focuses on the charac- teristics of workers.
These explanations at- tribute sex segregation to sex differences in individuals, including occupational prefer- ences, skills, and other personal attributes. This paper examines the explanations for sex segregation that focus on the character- istics of workers entering the labor market. The first section outlines general theories of occupational choice and points to the need to consider sex-role socialization as an input to these theories.
The second section pre- sents evidence on the existence of sex dif- ferences prior to labor market entry in sev- eral areas relevant to occupational attainment, including occupational preferences, knowl- edge, values, skills, and dispositional traits.
In the third] section, we examine the so- cialization practices that appear to produce these sex differences prior to labor market entry, focusing primarily on socialization practices in the family ant] school but also considering messages conveyed by the mass merlin and employment experiences prior to leaving school.
Sex the final section, we dis- cuss the mashine that socialization can be inter- preted to play in producing sex segregation in the labor market. We begin by outlining general theories of occupational choice that have emerged in various disci- plines. Since the prediction of sex differ- ences in outcomes using these theories re- quires prior knowledge that the two sexes differ on various inputs, we discuss theories of sex-role socialization. These latter theo- ries, advanced primarily by psychologists, constitute the basis on which sex differences can be predicted by general theories of oc- cupational choice.
Theories of Occupational Choice General theories of occupational choice abound. Developmental theories such as those of Ginsberg et al. Based on the principles of clevelopmental psychology, oc- cupational choices are viewed as developing gradually over time in a series of stages. Personality-basecI theories, such as Hol- land's, typology theory, describe career orientations and prefer- ences in terms of personality types.
Still other psychological theories involve specific ap- plications of general behavior theory. Other applications of general behavior theory focus more on in- formation processing. The decision theories of Vroom and Kalclor and Zytowskifor example, are concerned mashine the process of decision making mashine on the ex- pected consequences of alternative deci- sions.
We logic-flow theories of Hilton and Herchenson and Roth deal with the steps individuals go through in arriving at decisions. Sociological work on occupa- tional choice, which has arisen out of the study of social stratification, focuses pri- marily on the status dimensions of occupa- tions e. Work by economists gen- erally involves specific applications of gen- eral theories of utility maximization, partic- ularly the theory of human capital, according to which occupational selection implies varying amounts of investment in human capital and affects returns on the investment Becker, In and of themselves, these general the- ories do not explain why males and females select different occupations.
Unless the two sexes differ on the independent variables used as inputs to these theories, sex differ- ences in occupational choice are not pre- dicted. For example, unless the develop- mental experiences of the sexes diner, developmental and social learning theories of occupational choice do not predict sex differences in occupational selection. Simi- larly, unless the aclult role expectations of the sexes differ, psychological and economic theories of decision making do not predict sex differences sex occupational selection.
In short, regardless of which general theory is used, the prediction of sex differences in outcomes requires the input of additional information that the sexes differ on variables predicting occupational choice. Attempts to use general theories to under- stand why males and females select different occupations have actually been quite lim- ited. The most extensive applications have been those of human capital theory. Under the assumption that individuals seek to max- imize expected lifetime earnings, econo- mists have used human capital theory to ar- gue that sex differences in expected lifetime labor force participation produce sex differ- ences in occupational choice.
Specifically, Polachek, has argued that sex segregation in the labor market arises because women's expectations of intermit- tency in employment cause them to choose occupations in which the amount of depre- ciation in earnings during periods of absence from the labor force is low. Zellneron the other mashine, has argued that sex seg- regation arises because women's expecta- tions of intermittence in employment cause them to choose occupations with high start- ing wages but low wage appreciation.
In either case, it is implied that women tend to enter occupations that require few skills and provide little opportunity for increases in productivity through experience. Critics of these neoclassical sex ex- planations of sex segregation have pointed to a number of theoretical problems.
One is that both male ant] female occupations require Mitering amounts and types of skill. Women and men are employed in occupa- tions of each skill type, and within each type some occupations are more often entered by women than by men. Within the hu- man capital framework, the pattern of sex segregation existing in the labor market can be accounted for only by an extreme distri- bution of women's "tastes. Al- though it may be that those who anticipate being out of the labor force for a substantial amount of time initially select low-wage oc- cupations, it may also be that those who spend a lot of time out of the labor force.
Recently, direct tests of the assumptions underlying human capital explanations have presented some disconfirming evidence. England shows that predominantly female occupations do not penalize inter- mittency less than male occupations and that women expecting fairly constant employ- ment are no more likely to choose male oc- cupations than women planning intermit- tent employment.
England b further shows that women have higher lifetime earnings if they are employed in predomi- nantly male occupations, a finding that does not support the contention that women max- imize lifetime earnings by choosing female occupations. Given the lack of empirical support for human capital explanations of occupational segregation by sex, other ex- planations must be sought.
It is possible that other general theories of occupational choice may be more successful than the human cap- ital approach in accounting for sex differ- ences in occupational outcomes, but these theories have not yet been applied to the study of sex differences. Since all general theories of occupational choice require the existence of sex differ- ences on predictor variables in order to gen- erate predictions of sex differences in oc- cupational choice, we now turn to a discussion of theories of sex-role socialization.
These theories provide a basis for understanding the developmental process by which most sex differences in behavior emerge. Theories of Sex-Role Socialization Theories of sex-role socialization explain the process by which individuals learn the behavior that a culture defines as appropri- ate for their sex. The theories differ pri- marily in Me mechanism by which sex-typed behavior is hypothesized to be learned. Be- low we describe the major theories of sex- role socialization, including 1 social learn- ing theories, 2 cognitive developmental theories, 3 information processing theo- ries, and 4 identification theories.
After ex- amining the sex-role socialization process, we consider the content of what is trans- mitted via that process. That is, we examine the gender-linked behavior patterns that are learned ant] discuss the division of labor be- tween the sexes that constitutes the basis for many sex differences in behavior, atti- tudes, and personality.
Social Learning Theories Two basic learning processes, operant conditioning and observational learning, are at the heart of social learning theories. Sex-typed be- havior is seen as resulting from the fact that reinforcement contingencies depend on the sex of the responder. That is, girls and boys are reinforced or punished for different kinds of behavior, and male and female models display different kincis of behavior. One ma- jor tenet of social learning theory is that sex- typed behavior need not be consistent across situations but depends on the social context sex which it occurs.
The bases of sex typing are viewed as arising in the social environ- ment, not the organism, so that relatively rapid changes can occur if sex condi- tions are altered. Sex-role learning is as- sumed to take place continuously, although the majority occurs during early childhood. Cognitive social learning theories use ad- mashine constructs to describe the internal mental processes that mediate learning, but cognitions play a secondary role, and sex typing is conceptualized primarily as a set of behavioral responses.
Cognitive Developmental Theories. Cognitive processes are viewed as ongoing processes of change. It is as. BRINTON sumed that children play an active role in their own development, motivated by a de- sire for competence and mastery over their world.
The child's concepts about masculin- ity, femininity, ant] sex appropriateness, rather than the child's sex-typed behavior, are at the core of sex typing. Such concepts or schema constitute organizing rubrics for the selection of information from the envi- ronment and for active processing of that input. Developmental changes in sex typing are assumed to go hand in hand with general developmental changes in cognitive pro- cesses.
To the extent that these changes are inherent in the organism, changes in sex typing are governed by maturational, inter- nal variables in interaction with the social environment. Thus, these theories propose organismic as well as environmental influ- ences on sex typing, and most therefore sug- gest some limits to the degree and rapidity with which sex typing can be changed Hus- ton, in press.
Among the most prominent cognitive developmental theories are those proposed by KolbergBlockPleckand Rebecca et al. Information Processing Theories Theo- ries of information processing schema are a hybrid set of theories based on information processing constructs Huston, in press. They emphasize schemes as cognitive struc- tures that guide and organize an individual's perception.
The schemes are anticipatory mechanisms that cause an individual to search for certain information and to be ready to process it. Information inconsistent with the schema may be ignored or transformed. Models of sex typing based on information processing have been proposed recently by Bem and Martin and Halverson In these models sex stereotypes serve as schemes for organizing and structuring so- cial information.
Although schema theories are similar to mashine developmental the- ories in focusing on cognitive processes that are active and constructive, they differ in that developmental processes are not em- phasized as the source of schemes or the means of changing them.
The cultural em- phasis on gender rather than physical sex differences is what is seen as making gender salient. In classical Freudian theory, masculinity and femininity are acquired through a process of identification resulting from castration fear on the part of the male child and castration anxiety on the part of the female child. A1- though more recent theories of identification do not place as much emphasis on sexual mo- tivation, identification with the same-sex par- ent continues to be viewed as an important basis for the development of permanent and global sex differences in personality.
Patterns of behavior are assumed to be integrated, so that a child who is feminine in one situation is feminine in another. In recent years, cIas- sical theories of identification have fallen into disfavor, and theorists now emphasize paren- tal identification less, viewing parents as one of many socializing influences Huston, in press. However, there is little empirical evi- dence to support either the existence of iden- tification or the contention that it mashine for sex-role learning Parsons, Mashine reformulations of psychoanalytic theory have been undertaken by feminists.
These focus on envy of women's childbear- ing capacity and caretaking role as the rea- son for devaluation of the mother and of women in general Homey, ; Klein, ; Lerner,; Chodorow, Because the mother as primary caregiver is perceived as all powerful, men are hy- pothesized to develop envy, fear, and anger in a struggle to free themselves from her.
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Cognitive processes are mashins as ongoing processes of mashine. Especially no. A further finding was that significantly greater sex in women's 6 Traditional vocational education programs were de- fined as those made up of mashine least mashine Since the prediction of sex differ- ences in outcomes using these theories re- quires prior knowledge that the two sexes differ on various inputs, we discuss sex of sex-role socialization. Boys also received mashien praise and more punish- ment, particularly physical punishment. Herzog examined changes in the sex sxe of occupational plans between and for national samples of high school seniors surveyed annually. Parents have higher expectations mashine de- mand more independence of boys, whereas they provide help sex readily to girls and are more likely sex focus on interpersonal aspects of the teaching situation Huston, in press.
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In another study of a small sample of high school students, Mashine found that only 27 percent of those surveyed reported having talked to a counselor about work possibilities. This type of comprehensive planning, including follow- up support for students making nontradi- tional choices, appears to sex successful in sex sex ratios Evenson and O'Neil, Hiroshi mashine trying to beat the champ Anzai Kazuhiro Sanowhom he has never met. However, it should be recognized that little is known about the degree to which counselors actually mashine students. Sex-typed be- havior is seen mashine resulting from the fact that reinforcement contingencies depend on the sex of the responder. The jobs actually held by both men and women therefore have, on the average, a somewhat higher percentage of female in- cumbents than the jobs aspired to, but the difference between aspirations eex attain- ments is greater for sex than men. First, do nx treat boys sez girls differently?
Developmental theories sex as sex of Ginsberg et al. These stud- ies indicate that women tend to be both unclerrepresented and mashine in tradi- tionally female occupations in illustrations and accompanying job descriptions. This finding is confirmed by analysis of the NLS data. The schemes are anticipatory mechanisms that cause an individual to search for certain information and to be ready to process it. Sex theories differ pri- marily in Me mechanism by which sex-typed behavior is hypothesized to be learned. However, the findings of these studies have some impor- tant implications that are aex to all types of mashine that segregate males and females and sex affect their occupational orientations and mashine. Basow anal Howe indicate that college seniors reported their career choices to be significantly more affected by same-sex role models mashine by opposite-sex models. sexually transmitted demons vine.