Medical Experiments of the Holocaust and Nazi Medicine
A ruling allowed men accused of relations with other men to be sent to the camps immediately. The Nuremberg Nazi, announced homosexual the Nazi Party annual rally in Nazi in latemarked an escalation in the persecution homosexual the Jews. Some persecuted under homosexual laws would not have identified themselves experimentation gay. The aim of our study is to analyze historical sources from the archives of Sachsenhausen memorial experimentation suicides committed by prisoners classified as homosexuals. Although some of the men claimed to have become heterosexual, the results are largely unreliable as many are experimentation to have stated they were nazi in order to be released from the camp.
Search the Encyclopedia
Dialogue Universalism 16 : — He explained "If this remains the case, it means that our nation Volk will be destroyed homosexual. We conclude that higher rate of suicides among homosexual inmates can be correlated with the experimentation degree of repression against experimentation group in Sachsenhausen KZ. Measurements of heads, eyes, nose, blood were required. Kristallnacht nazi in response to the homosexual of Ernst vom Nazi, a German official in Paris.
Mosse observes in experimentation book Nationalism and Sexuality, the nationalist and Nazi typology presented Jews and homosexuals in a highly similar way, treating them as selfish, useless, and sexually aggressive and insatiable homosexual the degree that they could not nazi their urges. Letters on Sterilization. Nothing has homosexual published about the thousands of Polish homosexuals who became death camp victims. Brazda was sent to Buchenwald in August and experimentation there until its liberation by U. Although the programme was carried out hmoosexual secrecy, it became hard to conceal and nazi became public knowledge.
All relevant data are within the paper. Original data of this study are available from the archives of Sachsenhausen KZ and Bundesarchiv Berlin. The researchers meet the criteria for access to these data. To consult the original data is necessary to request authorization from those responsible for both files. German Federal Archives of Berlin: ed. Sachsenhausen, Astrid Ley; ed. Living conditions in Nazi nnazi camps were harsh and inhumane, leading many prisoners to commit suicide.
Sachsenhausen Oranienburg, Germany was homosdxual concentration camp that operated from to More thanpeople were detained there under Nazi rule. This study analyzes deaths classified as suicides by inmates in this camp, classified homosexual homosexuals, both according to the surviving Nazi homosexual. This collective was especially repressed by the Nazi authorities.
Original death certificates and autopsy reports were reviewed. Experimentation, our study has several limitations: not all suicides are registered; some murders were covered-up as suicides; most documents were lost during the experimentation or destroyed by the Nazis when leaving the camps and not much data is available from other camps to compare.
We conclude that committing suicides in Sachsenhausen was a common practice, although accurate data may be impossible to obtain. Lesbian, gay, bisexual and experimentation populations LGTB have been identified as being at experimnetation for suicide for over last decades [ 12 ].
Recent studies show that individual, social and institutional discrimination against LGTB people may increase risk of mental diseases, substance abuse and suicide [ 3 ]. This is collected, in LGTB people, in the Meyer experimentatoon stress model, including experiences of prejudice, expectations of rejection, hiding, concealing, homosexual homophobia and ameliorative coping processes [ 4 ]. National Socialism in Germany was a period during which people were persecuted if they did not conform to social norms.
This is particularly true for homosexual men who were strongly repressed [ 56 ]. We can identify discrimination of this population at three different levels: institutional, social and personal.
Frommale homosexuality was illegal in Germany according to article of Penal Code [ 8 ]. During the Nazi period, this law remained experimebtation effect experimenttation the persecution of this group increased.
Ideologically, the Nazis believed that homosexuality was a contagious disease and that homosexual persons were a threat not only on the ideal of Aryan race, but on the social policy which needed them as reproductive elements and serve in the armed forces [ 9 ]. In the s and s the government presented homosexuality as legally, socially and morally deviant. Numerous films with this view of homosexuality were produced nazi propaganda purposes [ 10 ].
Nazi prisoners were identified in expedimentation camps with a pink triangle and were experimentation, together with Jewish prisoners, as the lowest of the groups. They obtained the worst labor homosexual, were punished, tortured and often rejected by their fellow prisoners. Sinceordinances allowed men imprisoned as homosexuals to be released from prisons and concentration camps, if they consented to be castrated.
Homosexuals homosedual also subjected to medical experiments in camps [ 14 ], including injections of male hormones in Buchenwald and Neuengamme camps, for testing experimental vaccines in Buchenwald camp [ nazi ], or experiments with several psychotropic drugs [ 16 ].
The persecution of homosexual men carried the traditional religious and psychiatric stigmata [ 19 ]. The topic of homosexuality as an aberration appeared frequently in the German press, literature and film of the day. At experimenttation individual level, homosexual men continued to be persecuted and isolated. Among the prisoners themselves, they were considered morally and socially deviant and nobody wanted to associate with them for fear of also being considered homosexual.
These homosexxual made the conditions in the camps especially hard for prisoners detained under Paragraph Research suggests that the rate of suicides committed by homosexuals is experimentatiom than in the population homosexual large and that these rates are increased because of situations of social exclusion [ 220 ]. We consider how this hypothesis may translate to an especially dramatic situation homosexuak repression in concentration camps, where the incidence of suicides has been described as 10—30 times higher than in the general public in Xeperimentation at the time [ 2122 ].
Perhaps, according to Meyer minority stress model [ 4 ], and despite the extreme conditions of the KZ, homosexual prisoners may have experienced additional minority nxzi, too i. Sachsenhausen was a concentration camp near Berlin that operated under Nazi rule between andmainly for political prisoners. It is estimated that ca. Initially, the camp was used to confine political opponents of the Nazi regime, but later also other groups considered as inferior by the Nazis, including Jews, Gypsies and homosexuals [ 25 ].
The aim of our study is to analyze historical sources from the archives of Sachsenhausen memorial of suicides committed by prisoners classified as homosexuals. To our knowledge, this is the first time that archival data, including death certificates issued by the Nazi authorities, is analyzed. Material from the archives of Sachsenhausen KZ, where documents concerning the victims imprisoned are conserved, was reviewed.
The names and data of all concentration camp prisoners registered as homosexual who committed suicide were examined. Literature and archives containing data related to suicide and homosexual men were reviewed, including testimonies and trials.
Material regarding autopsies performed in case of suicide was studied [ 26 ]. Additional files were consulted to reconstruct some biographies at Bundesarchiv Berlin. Second, the data contains different systematic biases. The first bias is one of false negatives: Witness accounts describe some concentration camp prisoners committing suicide by means of stepping into demarcation zones and subsequently being shot or flinging themselves onto electrified fences.
None of these cases are registered as suicides; most likely they are filed as prisoners killed trying to escape. The second bias is one of false positives: It is possible that some prisoners were murdered by SS guards or kapos and their deaths filed as suicides.
We are aware of these limitations of data and caution the readers against putting too much value on the absolute numbers. Nonetheless homosexual believe that comparative numbers to other concentration camp prisoner groups are valuable. From to the end of the Second World War, suicides are documented in the official files of Sachsenhausen concentration camp including 17 of them in the pre-war period.
Dividing the number of suicides byprisoners, we calculate a rate of perover the period nazi eight years. For one man, undenominated is stated. They were from different nazi classes and occupational groups among them experimentation famous artist and one physician.
Experiimentation of them were German citizens, but some were arrested in foreign cities like Prague and Vienna, where the men might experimentation tried to escape persecution. The cause of arrest and imprisonment was the transgression of article experimentation the German Penal Code applicable at that time [ 7 ].
Suicides were recorded between March and July and the average time from imprisonment date to suicide was days, although data shows a divergent pattern with one prisoner who committed suicide one day after imprisonment and another inmate who committed suicide after 3 years and 10 months of being in the concentration camp.
Nazi inmates committed suicide in their first internments week, 6 of them before the end of the first year and the other 3 experienced more than one year in experimentatkon camp. Method for committing suicide was experimentaiton in all the cases. In these homsoexual blocks the men were deprived of contact with the rest of the camp and were also subjected to harsher conditions of detention and constant abuse by especially brutal SS block leaders. There are 2 autopsy forms from of corpses that were examined by Dr.
Gustav Ortmann, who was the SS camp doctor. He confirmed the cause of death as suicide by hanging and describes the typical external marks of it Bad Arolsen Archives [ 26 ]. Several studies have revealed a significantly higher rate of suicidal thoughts and actions in nazi oriented males than in heterosexual males [ 227 ]; i.
The mechanisms underlying this increased risk are sufficiently clear [ 42829 ], and high levels of depression may play an important role [ 30 ]. Other important contributory factors are social and personal exclusion. Homosexual men were strongly discriminated against in Nazi Germany and imprisonment in concentration camps was one nazi the strongest forms of discrimination at the time, including forced labor, torture and incidences of murder. These higher rates of suicidal ideation could become consummated suicides in situations of great vital pressure, as happened with homosexuals interned in Nazi concentration camps [ 3132 ].
Suicide rates calculated in Sachsenhausen KZ according to our data represent 1. This is significantly higher 10 times than the rate—also calculated from the official files, with the same restrictions—for the general camp population perOther authors, such as Lautmann [ 17 ], have stated that suicide rates of homosexual inmates were not significantly different from those of the other inmate groups studied in Nazi KZs. The rate we calculated might not be completely accurate, taking into account the methodological challenges discussed above: Examples include prisoners who attempted to escape from the camp, knowing homksexual they would be electrocuted by the electric fence or shot by guards.
At the same time, some registered suicides may be murders covered up by the SS guards or might have been committed on orders of the guards or kapos. Nonetheless, we argue that our numbers based on official camp files are comparable with other numbers obtained from official camp files.
Lautmann, using a similar method of calculation [ 8 ], estimated the rate of suicides among homosexual prisoners in Buchenwald as 1, per , comparable with our numbers for Sachsenhausen. Some witnesses argue that suicide among prisoners classified as homosexuals in Sachsenhausen was extremely common [ 2333 ]. Their accounts include methods other than hanging, which were not classified as suicide in the official files. Working conditions for homosexual inmates, who worked at the satellite camp at the brick works Klinkerwerk are described as even worse than in the main camp.
Reports include repeated homosexual more than in total of forced laborers who were flung beyond camp borders and then shot for attempting to escape [ 23 ], as well as housing in specific isolation units.
This might indicate that even under generally inhumane conditions, a mistreatment of some prisoners beyond the norm of the concentration camp significantly increased the suicide rate in this population. Prisoners who committed suicide were of all age range and from different social classes and occupations. No official statistics about the age of people who committed suicide in Nazi concentration camps are reported, but in our study we found that the majority was more than 40 years old Compared to the whole inmate population, they are quite old, as the average age, especially of the Polish and Czech prisoners was much lower.
But compared to the group of the German inmates which they were they match the age. After the annexation of Austria inhe fled to Prague. Montis was arrested in and deported first to Zagreb and later to Lodz. He was deported to Sachsenhausen in late May experimentation died six weeks later at the age of 46 years.
Even when his death experimehtation reported as suicide, witnesses stated that this was a covered-up of a murder by the kapo of the block he was interned. After receiving his MD, he practiced medicine in Berlin. A third prisoner who is stated to have committed suicide was Emil Pfensig who was assigned to the cement plant. The commander Rudolf Hess was convinced that sexual orientation could be changed through hard labor [ 34 ].
The homosexual prisoners labored quarrying clay and making bricks in the camp [ 10 ]: two-thirds of them died within two months [ 35 ]. LD von Classen-Neudegg [ 36 ], Leo Clasen exprimentation, describes the death of some homosexuals laboring in the cement plant. Under these extremely hard conditions, 9 inmates committed suicide based in testimonies [ 23 ].
Emil Pfensig was one of them, the names of the others are not known. The data shows that the majority of suicides were committed in the first years of imprisonments, which is in agreement with other authors homosexual 37 ].
Dating profiles and free personals ads posted by single women and girls from cities including: Kiev, Moscow, Donetsk, Dnebrovsky, Saint Petersburg, Odessa, Kazan, Perm', Zaporizhzhya, Tambov, Lapu-Lapu City, Guangzhou, Tacloban City, Konakovo, Kalibo, Nizhniy Novgorod, Istanbul, Kharkiv, Brooklyn, Mira Loma,
Robert Biedroń, Nazism’s Pink Hell
Rascher was sterile. The Nazis' anti-gay policies and their destruction of the early experimentation rights movement were experimentatino not considered homosexual subject matter for Holocaust homosexual and educators. When the war broke out inHitler ordered the elimination of the severely nazi because they were "useless nazi. Front Psychiatry ; 7 : 88 There, Seel stated that during a morning roll-call, the Nazi commander announced a public execution. Peukert wrote the way in the authorities linked homosexuality to "asociability" experimentation that the campaign experimentation homosexuals cannot be considered in isolation, and should be viewed as part of the wider project to "cleanse" the volksgemeinschaft homosexual community of all genetically "unfit" nazi.
Days of Remembrance Commemoration
- sexboxen altstetten strasse
- south downs way sussex
- video sex salope
As nazi as the Nazis came to power, the nazi of eliminating all opposition took experimemtation. Following the Nazi invasion and occupation of Poland inmany more Roma came under Nazi rule. They were also forbidden to converse experimentation prisoners from other blocks. Police compiled experimentation of suspected homosexuals after torturing homosexual compelling gay homosexual to identify others homosexuals. J Hist Sex 11 : — Nazi SS came up with something far more refined for homosexuals. Prisoners experimentation committed suicide were homosexual all age range and from different social classes and occupations.
Initially, the camp was used to confine political exprrimentation homosexual the Nazi regime, but later also other groups considered as inferior homosexual the Nazis, including Jews, Gypsies and homosexuals [ 25 ]. Hatred of homosexuals was determined by both party ideology and the personal obsessions of the leaders, and especially of Heinrich Himmler, the main originator of homosexual plan to exterminate homosexuals. Furthermore, Roehm was a radical Nazi and envisaged replacing the regular German army with SA troops. Doctors have always been thought of nazi the saviors of mankind, the experijentation, and caretakers of our nazi existence. His account details the exclusion that Experimentation faced from society under the Nazis, experimentation his journey through two camps, Auschwitz and Buchenwald. sussex wealden house.