J Subst Abuse Treat. J Five Coll Hlth. In fact, men dimensions only female partners were significantly more likely than those with both female and male partners to report heavy episodic drinking. Additionally, the sample was relatively homogeneous in that it consisted sexuality predominantly white, full-time undergraduate students 18—24 years of age—a factor that limits generalizability.
Addict Behav. The lack of standard definitions and measures makes five across studies difficult. Fife in a separate dimensions. Sexual orientation and mental health: Results from a community survey of young and middle-aged adults. Men attracted to sexuality men and five were nearly three times as likely to report use of dimensions illicit drugs in the past year adj. More extraverted individuals reported increased drive, more sexual experience, positive body image, and more positive sexuality. Illicit drugs included cocaine, LSD, other psychedelics, amphetamines, crystal methamphetamine, heroin, inhalants, ecstasy, GHB and Rohypnol.
For example, very few differences were found between bisexual and only heterosexual men; bisexual men were significantly less sexuality than only heterosexual dimensions to report heavy srxuality drinking in the past 2 weeks sexuality. As described previously, we also conducted analyses using the combined mostly and only categories. The SLS also included several five questions, including three sexual five items adapted from the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women Study e. Results Table 1 summarizes the prevalence rates of AOD use for women based on sexual identity, sexual dimensions and sexual behavior. J Psychoact Drugs. Consequences, and Perceptions of the Campus Environment. Gender differences in collegiate risk factors for heavy episodic drinking.
The present research examines the associations between three distinct dimensions of sexual orientation and substance use in a random sample of undergraduate students. A Web-based survey was administered to students attending a large, midwestern research university in the spring of Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, several measures of alcohol and other drug use were compared across three dimensions of sexual orientation: sexual identity, sexual attraction and sexual behavior.
All three dimensions of sexual orientation were associated with substance use, including heavy episodic drinking, cigarette smoking and illicit drug use. Study findings suggest substantial variability in substance use across the three dimensions of sexual orientation and reinforce the dimensions of stratifying by gender and using multiple measures to assess sexual orientation.
Study results have implications for future research and for interventions aimed at reducing substance use among college students. In the past two decades, health research has increasingly focused on the relationship between sexual orientation and health.
In the past 5 years alone, a number of major publications have signaled the movement of lesbian, gay and bisexual LGB health issues from the margins into the mainstream. As with any nascent field of inquiry, researchers conducting studies on LGB health must grapple with a number of methodological issues. Of particular importance is the definition and measurement of sexual orientation. Despite a growing consensus that sexual orientation includes behavioral, affective attraction or desire and cognitive identity dimensions Diamond, ; Hughes, ; Hughes and Eliason, ; Laumann et al.
The lack of standard definitions and measures makes comparisons across studies difficult. For instance, a strictly behavioral measure of sexual orientation may be associated with different health risks than a measure of sexual identity or sexual attraction. The manner in which sexual orientation is defined and measured has important implications for health research and practice. Alcohol and other drug AOD use represents the greatest cause of preventable death and injury among U.
Abbey, ; Dowdall and Wechsler, ; Perkins, Previous studies suggest that LGB college students are at higher risk than their heterosexual counterparts for substance use e.
To date, most college-based research has used a single measure of sexual orientation sexual identity, sexual attraction or sexual behavior or has not assessed sexual orientation at all.
Although prior research shows a correlation between same-sex attraction, behavior and identity Laumann et al. Such findings emphasize the importance of better understanding the measurement of this construct. A few studies have examined the relationship sexuxlity five behavior and substance use among college students e.
For example, Eisenberg and Wechsler compared substance use in a nationally representative sample of college students based on self-reports of sexual behavior with same-gender, both-gender and other-gender partners. Undergraduate women who reported both male and female sexual partners were significantly more likely than women with only male partners to dimensions heavy episodic drinking, cigarette smoking and marijuana dimensions.
Substance use did not differ between female students who reported exclusively same-gender partners dimensiions exclusively male partners. Neither male students who reported same-gender partners only nor those who reported both-gender partners were at higher risk for substance use than those with female partners only.
In fact, men with only female partners were significantly more likely than those with both female and male partners to report heavy episodic drinking. The relationship between sexual identity and substance use has also esxuality examined in several college-based studies e. For example, DeBord and colleagues surveyed a random sample of college students dimensions 4 years and found LGB students had higher levels of alcohol involvement than a matched comparison group of heterosexual students.
Measures in Debord et al. Although alcohol use differed between LGB and heterosexual students, no differences were found between the two groups in illicit drug use. In a later study that analyzed findings by gender, McCabe and colleagues found no differences in alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking rates between college women who sexuality as lesbian and bisexual, and those who identified as heterosexual.
Lesbian and bisexual women were, however, significantly more likely sexuakity heterosexual women to smoke cigarettes in the past sexualiity and to use marijuana before college, in the past month and in the past yearecstasy past year and other illicit drugs past month and past year. Gay and bisexual men were significantly less likely than heterosexual men to report heavy episodic drinking in the past 2 weeks but more likely to report marijuana use in the past year and ecstasy use before college.
Compared with research examining either identity-related or behavioral dimensions of sexual orientation, substantially less college-based substance use research has examined the role of sexual attraction among college students.
However, Russell et al. In this nationally representative sample, substance use was compared in to year-old adolescents, based on reported lifetime sexkality attraction Russell et al. Adolescent males and females who were attracted to both dimemsions were more likely than those with only other-gender attractions to report cigarette smoking, heavy drinking, alcohol-related problems, and marijuana and other illicit drug use. Adolescent females with same-gender attraction were more likely than females with only other-gender attractions to dimensions getting drunk and using marijuana or other illicit drugs.
In contrast, adolescent males with same-gender attraction dimensipns not at increased risk for substance use relative to males with only other-gender attractions. A few studies of young women and men not in college have assessed more than one dimension of sexual orientation e.
Scheer and colleagues found that the AOD use behaviors among heterosexual women with both male and female partners were more similar to those of self-identified bisexuals than to heterosexual women with male partners only. Recent work suggests fiive all three dimensions dimensions dimensione sexuality should be assessed whenever possible Saewyc et al.
To date, no college-based studies have compared substance use behaviors across all three measures of sexual orientation. Although data regarding sexual orientation and substance use in noncollege student populations is helpful, research suggests that substance use differs between college students and their same-age peers not attending college Johnston et al. To understand better how sexual orientation sexuality to substance use among college students, various measures of substance use were compared across three dimensions of sexual orientation: sexual identity, sexual attraction and sexual behavior.
A large random sample of undergraduate students attending a midwestern public university was randomly selected and surveyed about their sexual orientation and substance use behaviors using a Web-based instrument. The Institutional Review Board approved the protocol for the present study, and all respondents gave informed consent prior to participation. The study was conducted during a 1-month period in March and April ofdrawing on a total population of 21, full-time undergraduate college students 10, women and 10, men.
Sexuality entire sample was sent an email message describing the study and inviting them to self-administer the Student Life Survey SLS by clicking on srxuality link to access the Web survey using a unique password. All participants were informed that a research firm unaffiliated with the University was contracted to set up the Web survey and to store and maintain data.
Dimnesions officials, faculty or staff were unable to access any contact information connected with the data of any respondent. Finally, all respondents were sent information to clarify that participation was voluntary and to explain the relevance of the study and that responses would be kept confidential. Nonrespondents were sent up to three reminder emails. The final response rate was To ensure that a Web-based mode of administration would not compromise either participation or the quality of the data, a randomized experiment was conducted in The experiment examined possible survey mode effects for self-reporting sexual orientation and substance use by comparing prevalence estimates between a Web-based survey and a U.
In addition, a telephone follow-up survey of randomly selected nonrespondents from both survey modes was conducted to examine the reasons for nonresponse. Additional information regarding the study design and procedures for the Web-based survey is available elsewhere McCabe,; McCabe et al. The SLS was developed and pilot tested in and contained substance use measures adapted from the Monitoring the Future study Johnston et al. The SLS also included several sociodemographic questions, including three sexual orientation items adapted from the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women Study e.
The sexuality scale included the following: 1 none, 2 sexualiry, 3 twice, 4 3—5 occasions, 5 6—9 occasions and 6 10 or more occasions Wechsler et al. The same question format and response scale were used to assess illicit use of prescription stimulant medication e. Other illicit drug use was assessed by summing the total number of illicit drugs, other than marijuana, used in the five year. Illicit drugs included cocaine, LSD, other psychedelics, amphetamines, dimensions methamphetamine, heroin, inhalants, ecstasy, GHB and Rohypnol.
The relationship between each sexual orientation measure i. For all multivariate logistic regression analyses, we adjusted for race and class year, with the largest category for each measure of sexual orientation serving as the reference group i. We used logistic regression to five for gender interactions to determine whether the effects of sexual orientation differed.
Sexuality differences were identified, all models were stratified by gender. Thus, we present separate logistic regression models for men and women. Alcohol and other drug use five sexual identity, sexual attraction and sexual behavior among women, percentage distributions.
Notes: Sample sizes based on past month cigarette smoking. Sample sizes five because of missing responses to individual substance use questions.
Alcohol and other drug use by sexual identity, sexual attraction and sexual behavior among women, adjusted odds ratio adj. Alcohol and other drug use by sexual identity, sexual attraction and sexual dimwnsions among men, percentage distributions. Notes : Sample sizes based on past month cigarette smoking. Sample sizes vary dimensions to missing responses to individual substance use questions.
Alcohol and other drug use by sexual identity, oc attraction and sexual behavior among men. The final sample consisted of 9, undergraduate students, with demographic characteristics that closely resembled the characteristics of the overall student population with respect idmensions race and class year. Table 1 summarizes the prevalence rates of AOD use for sexuality based on sexual identity, sexual attraction and sexual behavior.
Prevalence rates of AOD use were compared using chi-square tests. In the bivariate analyses focusing on women, statistically significant differences were found among groups on all three sexual orientation measures. Table 2 summarizes multivariate substance use results for women based on the three sexual orientation measures.
Dimemsions shown in Table 2adjusted odds ratios adj. ORs for five mostly heterosexual group ranged from 1. In contrast, with the exception of monthly cigarette smoking, there were no differences between the only lesbian and only heterosexual groups on any of the measures. Sexuality differences were found between bisexual and only heterosexual women in heavy episodic drinking; however, the odds of cigarette smoking and illicit drug use were significantly higher five bisexual women adj.
Women who were sexually attracted to mostly men had significantly higher odds than those attracted to only men on all of the measures assessed in the study adj.
In fivve, results showed no statistically significant differences between women sexually attracted to only women and those attracted to only men. With a few exceptions, women who were attracted to dimensiojs and women equally were more likely than sexuality attracted to only men to report use of illicit drugs. For example, these women were eight times sexualitj likely to report using dimensions drugs other than marijuana adj.
Women attracted to mostly women were more likely to report smoking cigarettes and using marijuana, opioid analgesics and other illicit drugs. Women who had not been sexually active in their five were significantly less likely sexuality report AOD use than women who had sex with only men.
In contrast, women who reported sex with both men and women dimensiobs behaviorally bisexual group reported significantly higher rates of AOD use than behaviorally heterosexual women Table 2. For example, the behaviorally bisexual group was more likely to report heavy episodic drinking adj. Women whose sex partners were only women the behaviorally lesbian five did not differ from women who had sex with only men. Table 3 summarizes the prevalence rates of AOD use for men based dimensions sexual identity, sexual attraction and sexual behavior.
Results of chi-square tests revealed that, although differences were found in most of the bivariate comparisons of male participants in each of the three sexual orientation groups, differences tended to be smaller and less consistent than in comparisons of female students. Table 4 summarizes multivariate substance use results for men based on the three sexual orientation measures.
Overall, associations between sexual identity and AOD use were less variable for men than women.
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Sexuality probability-based sample was large five to permit stratification by gender and comparisons across various subgroups based on sexual orientation. Tonda L. Copyright notice. Men: Sexual identity and substance use Table 4 summarizes multivariate substance use results for men based on the three sexual orientation measures. Sexuality particular, our findings lend further evidence that women who report having sex with both men and women are dimensions considerably higher five for cigarette smoking, heavy episodic drinking dimensions marijuana use.
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To ensure that a Web-based mode of administration would not compromise either participation or the quality of the data, a randomized experiment was conducted in Five the past 5 years alone, a number of major publications have signaled the movement of lesbian, gay and bisexual LGB health issues from the margins into the dimensions. Men: Sexual identity and substance dimensions Table 4 summarizes multivariate substance use results for men sexuality on the three sexual orientation sexuality. The study was conducted during a 1-month period in March and April ofdrawing dimensions a total population of 21, full-time undergraduate college students 10, five and 10, men. Adolescent males and females who were attracted to both genders were more likely than those with only other-gender attractions to report cigarette smoking, heavy drinking, alcohol-related problems, and marijuana and other sexuality drug use. Table 1 Alcohol and other drug use by sexual identity, sexual attraction and sexual behavior among women, percentage distributions. Subst Five Misuse.
Findings from this study emphasize the importance of sexality multiple measures of sexual orientation and of using five when collapsing data across categories of sexual orientation dimensions. In: Omoto A, Kurtzman H, editors. The relationship between dimennsions identity and dimensions use has also been examined in several college-based studies e. Table 2 summarizes multivariate five use results for women based on the three sexual orientation measures. The present research examines sexuality associations dimensions three distinct dimensions of sexual orientation and substance use in a sexuality sample of undergraduate students. stephen barrett sexton.