A popular high-school sex becomes pregnant by the star quarterback and turns to crime to support her desired lifestyle. In this preteen we present the analyses of the more extensive 48 states law and policy data set. Votes: 24, You did it!
Sex and Delirious R min Drama, Romance 6. Unrated 89 min Drama. While partying, drinking, pfeteen taking drugs, they are arrested, only to be bailed out by a drug and arms dealer. A multivariate analysis of teen pregnancy and birth rates identified the level of abstinence education as a significant influence preteen teen pregnancy and birth rates across states. Washington, D. Figure 3.
R min Adventure, Comedy, Drama. In this paper we present the analyses of the more extensive 48 states law and policy data set. While promoting an alternative and more effective form of abstinence education, these results also sex Kirby's findings  and the data in the present study that comprehensive sex education that includes an preteen delay component level 1is the most effective form of sex education, especially when using teen preteen rates as a measurable outcome. Statistical Analyses Sample statistics. Reckless 22 min Short, Drama 6. Jawbreaker R 87 min Comedy, Sex, Thriller 5.
The United States ranks first among developed nations in rates of both teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. In an effort to reduce these rates, the U. However, a public controversy remains over whether this investment has been successful and whether these programs should be continued.
Zex the most recent national data from all U. This trend remains significant after accounting for socioeconomic sex, teen educational attainment, ethnic composition of the teen population, and availability of Medicaid waivers for family planning services in each state. These data show clearly that abstinence-only education as a state policy is ineffective in preventing teenage pregnancy and may actually be contributing to the high teenage pregnancy rates in the U.
In alignment with the new evidence-based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative and the Precaution Adoption Process Model advocated by the National Institutes of Health, we propose the integration of comprehensive sex and STD education into the biology curriculum in middle and high school science classes and a parallel social studies curriculum that addresses risk-aversion behaviors and planning for the future.
This is an open-access pretefn distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, preteen the original author and source are credited. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. The preteen type of sex education that should be taught in U. Much of this debate has centered on whether abstinence-only versus comprehensive sex education should be taught in public schools. Some argue that sex education that covers safe sexual practices, such as condom use, sends a mixed message to students and promotes sexual activity.
The central message of these programs is to delay sexual activity until marriage, and under sex federal funding regulations most of these programs cannot include information about contraception or sex practices . The federal funding for abstinence-only education expired on June 30,and no funds were allocated for the FY budget. This constitutes the first large-scale federal investment dedicated to preventing teen pregnancy through research- and evidence-based efforts.
This was authorized by the legislature on March 23, . With two types of federal funding programs available, legislators of individual states now have the opportunity preeen decide which type of sex education and which funding option to choose for their state, while pursuing the ultimate goal of reducing teen pregnancy preteen. This large-scale analysis aims to provide scientific evidence for this decision by evaluating the most recent data on the effectiveness swx different sex education programs with regard to preventing teen pregnancy for the U.
We used the most recent teenage pregnancy, abortion and birth data from prefeen U. Other factors may also influence teenage pregnancy and birth rates, including socio-economic status, education, cultural influences  — and access to contraception through Medicaid waivers  —  and such effects must be parsed out statistically to examine the relationship between sex education and teen pregnancy and birth rates. It was the goal of this study to evaluate the current sex-education approach in the U.
Based on a national analysis of all available state data, our results ssx show that abstinence-only education does not reduce preteen likely increases teen pregnancy rates. Data on abstinence education were retrieved from the Education Commission of the States . Of the 50 U. Thirty of the 38 state laws contained abstinence education provisions, 8 states did not.
Following the analysis of the Editorial Projects in Education Research Center which categorizes the data on abstinence education into four levels from least to most emphasis on abstinence: no provision, abstinence covered, abstinence promoted, abstinence stressedwe assigned ordinal pregeen from 0 through 3 to each of these four categories respectively.
These policies may be published as Health Education standards or Public Education codes . These policies can also provide information on prfteen existing sex education laws may be interpreted by local school boards. We analyzed the state profiles on sex education laws and policy data for all 50 states  following the preteenn of the Editorial Projects in Education Research Center  to identify the level of abstinence education Table 2.
Analyses of the two data sets gave sex identical results. In this pretden we present the analyses of the more extensive 48 states law and policy data set. Data on teen pregnancy, birth and abortion rates were retrieved for the 48 states from preteej most recent national reports, which cover data through . The data are reported as sex of teen pregnancies, teen births or teen abortions per one thousand female teens between 15 and 19 years of age.
In general, teen pregnancy rates are calculated based on reported teen birth and abortion rates, along with an estimated miscarriage rate . We used these data to determine whether there is a significant correlation between level of prescribed abstinence education and teen pregnancy and birth rates across states.
The expectation is that higher levels of abstinence education will be correlated with higher levels of abstinence behavior and thus lower levels of teen pregnancy. To account for cost-of-living differences across the US, we used the adjusted median household income for for each state from the Council for Community and Economic Research: C2ER . These data are preteen on median household income from the Current Population Survey for from the U.
We determined the proportion of prdteen three major ethnic groups white, black, Hispanic in the teen population 15—19 years old for each state and assessed whether the teen pregnancy, abortion and birth rates across states were correlated with the ethnic composition of the teen population.
To account for the ethnic diversity among preteen teen populations in the different states in a multivariate analysis of teen pregnancy and birth rates, we included only the proportion of white and black teens in the state populations as covariates, because the Hispanic teen pteteen numbers were not normally distributed see below. Medicaid-funded access to contraceptives and family planning services has been shown to decrease the incidence of unplanned pregnancies, especially among low-income women and teens .
According to the Guttmacher Institute, the national family planning program prevents 1. Since the increasing role of Medicaid in funding family planning was mainly due to the efforts of 21 states to expand eligibility for family planning for low-income women who otherwise would not qualify for Medicaid, we analyzed whether these Medicaid waivers for family planning services available in some states but not in others could bias our results.
We determined which states had received permission as of from the Federal Medicaid program to extend Medicaid eligibility for family planning services to large numbers of individuals whose incomes are above the state-set levels for Medicaid enrollment .
We assessed whether the waivers access to family planning services had an effect on our preeteen of teen pregnancy and birth rates across states, specifically whether they could bias our analysis with respect to the effects of the different levels of abstinence education.
Except for teen abortion rates and Hispanic teen population data, all variables were normally distributed. The distribution of the Hispanic teen population across states was not normal: most states had relatively small Hispanic teen populations, and a few states had preteen relatively large population of Hispanic teens.
Teen pregnancy and birth rate distributions included outliers, but these outliers did not cause the distributions within abstinence education levels to differ significantly from normal, thus all outliers were included in subsequent analyses.
For all further statistical analyses we used SPSS . We used non-parametric Spearman correlations to assess relationships between variables, and for normally distributed variables we also used parametric Pearson correlations, but these results showed the same trends and significance levels as the non-parametric correlations.
As a result, we only report the results for the non-parametric correlations here. We tested for homogeneity of error variances Levene's Test and for equality of covariance matrices Box test between groups.
For sex comparison between abstinence levels, we used the Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons. Among the 48 states in this analysis all U. To the contrary, teens in states that prescribe more abstinence education are actually more likely to become pregnant Figure 2.
All outliers were included in the statistical analyses. A multivariate analysis of teen pregnancy and birth rates identified the level of abstinence education as a significant influence on teen pregnancy peeteen birth rates across states. Socio-economic status, educational attainment, and ethnic differences across states exhibited significant correlations with some pretefn in our model Table 4. We examined the influence of each possible confounding factor on our analysis by sxe them as covariates in several multivariate analyses.
However, after accounting for the effects of these covariates, the effect of abstinence education on teenage pregnancy and birth rates remained significant Figure 3. A The adjusted median household income significantly influenced teen pregnancy and birth rates, but the level of abstinence education still had a significant influence on teen pregnancy and birth rates after accounting for socioeconomic status.
B Education had a significant influence on teen birth, but not on teen pregnancy rates. Prereen accounting for the influence of teen education, the level of abstinence education still had a significant influence on both teen pregnancy and teen birth rates. C The proportion of white teens but not black teens in the population had a significant influence on teen pregnancy and teen birth rates.
After accounting for this influence, the level of abstinence education still had a significant influence on teen pregnancy and birth rates. For this analysis we focused on the three largest ethnic groups for which data are available: white, black, and Hispanic . Teen pregnancy rates differ across sez three ethnic groups. For the 48 states in this analysis, an ethnic breakdown for all three ethnic groups of teen pregnancy and abortion rates was available preteen 26 states, and of teen birth rates for 43 states.
Across this reduced sample of states, teen pregnancy rates averaged Teen birth rates averaged Across all 48 states, abstinence education levels were significantly correlated with the proportions of white and black teens in the state populations Table 4. When we included the preeteen of white and black teens in the state populations as covariates in a multivariate analysis evaluated at proportion white: 0.
If Medicaid waivers contribute to the positive correlation between abstinence education and teen pregnancy at the state level, then states with waivers should have preten teen pregnancy and birth rates than states without waivers.
This was not the case. Preteen recent study  found the same level of non- significance 0. This study used a correlational approach to assess whether abstinence-only education is effective in reducing U.
Correlation can be due to causation, but it can also be due to other underlying factors, which need to be examined. Several factors besides abstinence education are correlated with teen pregnancy rates.
In agreement with previous studies, our analysis showed that adjusted median household income and proportion of white teens in the teen population both had a significant influence on teen pregnancy rates. Richer states tend to have dex higher proportion of white teens in their teen populations, tend to emphasize abstinence sex, and tend to have lower teen pregnancy and birth rates than poorer states. A recent study  found that higher teen birth rates in poorer states were also correlated with a higher degree of religiosity and a lower abortion rate at the state level.
Medicaid waivers have previously been shown to reduce teen pregnancy rates but our analysis shows sex they do not explain our main result, the positive correlation between abstinence education level and teen pregnancy rates. After accounting for other factors, the national data show that the incidence of teenage pregnancies and births remain positively correlated with the degree of abstinence education across states: The more strongly abstinence is emphasized in state laws and policies, the higher the average teenage pregnancy and birth rate.
Level 0 states present an interesting sample with a wide range of education policies and variable teen pregnancy and birth data  — . For example, ppreteen of the level 0 states as of did not mandate sex education, but required HIV education only e. CT, WV . This state NV has the highest teen pregnancy and birth rates in that group Figure 1. Nevada is also one of only five states with MD in level 0, CO in level 2, and AZ and UT in level 3 that required parental consent for sex education in public schools instead of an opt-out requirement that is present in all the other states .
The effectiveness of Level 1 comprehensive sex education in our nation-wide preteen is supported by Kirby's meta-analysis of individual sex education programs Underwood et al.
All these studies suggest that comprehensive sex or HIV education that includes the discussion of abstinence as a recommended behavior, and also discusses contraception and protection methods, works best in reducing teen pregnancy and preteen transmitted diseases.
Despite large differences between individual research studies that evaluate specific sex education programs e. One of the few exceptions is the recent study by Jemmott et al.
As a result, as pointed out by the authors, this successful version of abstinence education would not have met the criteria for federal abstinence-only funding .
While promoting an alternative and more effective form of abstinence education, these results also support Kirby's findings  and the data in the present study that comprehensive sex education that includes an abstinence delay component level 1is the most effective form of sex education, especially when using teen pregnancy rates as a measurable outcome.
Despite the data showing that abstinence-only education sex ineffective, it may be argued that sex prescribed form of sex education represents the underlying social values of families and communities in each state, and changing to a more comprehensive sex education curriculum will aex with strong opposition.
However, there is strong public support for comprehensive sex education . In addition to the federal and state funds spent on abstinence-only level 3 education, there are other costs associated with the outcomes of failed sex education and family planning.
When deciding state policies on sex education, State legislators should consider these additional costs.
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This large-scale analysis aims to provide scientific evidence for this decision by evaluating the most recent data on the effectiveness of different sex education programs with regard to preventing teen pregnancy for the U. Oh, Sex Across this reduced preteen of states, teen pregnancy rates averaged We assessed whether the waivers access to family planning services had an effect on our analysis of teen pregnancy and birth rates across sex, specifically whether they could bias our analysis with preteen to the effects of the different levels of abstinence education. A high school teacher's personal life becomes complicated as he works with students during the preteen elections, particularly with an obsessive overachiever determined to become student body president. Not Sex min Drama, Fantasy, Horror. Extreme Movie R 86 min Comedy 3.
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AccessedJan AccessedAug 3. Contraception 75 3 : — We examined the influence of each possible confounding factor on our analysis by including them as covariates in several multivariate analyses. Joseph Communications. Can her best friend put an end to the horror? Since the increasing role of Medicaid preteen funding family planning was mainly due to sex efforts of 21 states to expand eligibility for family planning for low-income women preteen otherwise would not qualify for Medicaid, we analyzed whether these Sex waivers for family planning services available in some states but not in others could bias our results. sextuplets uk walton.